SloMo should resign to restore authority to Canberra.

Ah, the Coalition press.  It starts with the editorial:

State government is a simple realm, encapsulated in a single word: services. Former NSW premier Neville Wran, in office from 1976 to 1986, said his legacy was “we made NSW a slightly better place in which to live”. “Nifty” did that by delivering services, concentrating on three Ps: petrol, power and public transport. It was a different era but the essence of governing is competency; no need for flashy rhetoric. State politics is a place for technocrats, uppity mayors and officials who mouth a new lingo — “putting customers first”. Of the current crop, Victoria’s Daniel Andrews has got the basics right most often, even though he’s prone to indulging niche causes.

Lamentably, this tier of government is a theatre for infantile games, endless plots and subdistrict grifting. Premiers and chief ministers will be exposed by the coronavirus pandemic. Yet how well they and their interconnected systems respond to the medical, social and economic emergency is literally a matter of life and death. Our success in containing COVID-19 also depends on what leaders bring to the broader fight through the national cabinet and other platforms.

Ah yes, blame the states. It’s the epitome of a national crisis with no hope of containment without a national strategy yet failure is the state’s fault.

The bizarre turns Twilight Zone with the arrival of Dennis Shanahan:

Scott Morrison has moved to quell growing anxiety and confusion with substantive action and forthright rhetoric.

Lordy, there must be some other “good” Scott Morrison in the dimension that Shanahan inhabits. Because we got the slow motion, deeply confusing and waffling one.

Greg Sheridan makes a false assumption:

For 50 years, popular culture in Australia and the West has mocked authority, glorified rebellion, sanctified the individual’s quest for ever deeper self-realisation and told us that Western governments are dishonest, corrupt, wicked and primarily act as agents of racism, colonialism, sexism, economic exploitation and environmental despoliation.

All this is reinforced by academic culture, which sheets all these sins home not only to Western governments but to Western civilisation generally.

Is it any wonder that these societies are having so much trouble in the coronavirus crisis responding to essential lifesaving directions from their respective governments?

Wjy should anyone respect the authority of the SloMo Government when it has none? It is run by a real estate lacky. Its treasurer is a tennis pro. These are the dregs of a politcal party that took power in a coup after successive leadership putsch’s drained what was already a thin gene pool. Its performance since the election has been terrible, guiding the economy into recession and cheerleading private debt higher into an end of cycle shock. Not to mention abandoning the nation during historic bushfires and mismanaging climate change, as well as directing all policy for the continent at a small group of troglodyte QLDers. The PM himself can talk under wet cement and never say a thing. He is about as human as a loudhailer.

Imagine the strong leeadership and cogency of John Howard versus this clown show. There is no authority to respect. That’s why political trust is at record lows.

And, in the end, it has simply done poorly on the virus. Paul Kelly offers more of the same propaganda draped in flowing robes of failed erudition:

The Labor Party has broken decisively from policy bipartisanship on the fight against COVID-19. Its attack on Wednesday was comprehensive, specific and personal. Sensing mounting concern about Scott Morrison’s stance, Labor has dissented from the government and its medical advisers.

Labor leader Anthony Albanese and his senior colleagues ­rejected Morrison’s core strategy — fighting two crises, health and economic, together. Albanese ­repudiated this as a “false distinction”, saying Labor saw health as the first priority followed by the economy “in that order”.

He rejected the Morrison method of daily updates as “no good” for certainty and con­fidence. Aware that tougher measures are coming, Albanese called for “stricter shutdowns” of the economy. He accused Morrison of playing politics, confusing the public and seeking “to hector people and blame people”.

For once, the Albotross is right. There is no half-arsed path that works. We need complete shutdown  of infected areas to contain the virus then you test, test, test your way through the reopening. It is north Asia’s proven method and the only way to ensure lowest deaths and minimal economic damage.

The simple truth is Canberra’s authority would rise if SloMo and his gaggle of Murdoch cheerleaders resigned.

David Llewellyn-Smith
Latest posts by David Llewellyn-Smith (see all)


  1. Totes BeWokeMEMBER

    Of all people, Shane Warne said….. “Listening to the PM like everyone here in Australia and what I understood was: ‘It’s essential. Unless it’s not. Then it’s essentially not essential. I can’t be clearer’.”

    • “…but it’s OK to buy a teeshirt”

      It’s a fracking joke. The minute the words came up I lamented. All this and last week I’ve been watching a group of fellow school parents trying to self-justify continuing to send their kids to school when they could easily keep them home on the basis of government mismessaging.

      Yesterday, I started getting companies I work with trying to insist they should keep workers on the job/site because “everything is essential”.

      It’s death by Mai Tai again.

      • All jobs are essential, and they won’t be shutting down any essential jobs. Therefore the shutdown won’t actually be shutting down anything at all. It’s basically just marketing to make them look like they are doing something. There’s a reason he’s called Scotty from Marketing.

  2. Totes BeWokeMEMBER

    Out of all this waffle the key message of keeping your hands clean and away from your face has been completely lost.

    We are run by vested interested, corrupt, puppet, unintelligent, impractical, numptie yes men, right across our country. It’s time to take our country back from corporate sponsored leaders and parties, who are no doubt filtering critical health advice through what’s best for the elites and or corporations.

    If this chapter doesn’t wake Australia up, we’re fked.

      • Totes BeWokeMEMBER

        Ermo hates me because, like all sensible people, I hate Labor.

        Ermo erroneously thinks Labor can be changed to save us from LNP. No, Labor are the catalyst that allows LNP to sell off our futures, trade us and our kids for vibrants, and give away our country to elites.

        • No, labor and liberal are the result of our “democratic” system that allows the nobility to maintain control while placating the masses with the illusion of representation.
          See the house of lords, in the uk parliament for the truth behind representative democracy

          • Totes BeWokeMEMBER

            Put an independent in more than half the seats and it’s all over for both LNP and Labor.

            Nothing wrong with our democracy. Everything wrong with a dumb population not looking fro a way out of this cluster fk.

          • Which independent?
            How are you going to get the whole population to vote for any particular one?
            Do all seats even have an independent running?
            And finally, do you think a government full of independents could get anything at all done? At least a party with a majority can enforce votes and get stuff done in parliament.

          • Totes BeWokeMEMBER

            “How are you going to get the whole population to vote for any particular one?”

            I don’t know. That’s what I want you etal to help me with.

            “Do all seats even have an independent running?” Yes, I think so.

            “And finally, do you think a government full of independents could get anything at all done? At least a party with a majority can enforce votes and get stuff done in parliament”

            Nothing, absolutely nothing can possibly be anywhere near as bad as giving away our kids futures.

          • drsmithyMEMBER

            See the house of lords, in the uk parliament for the truth behind representative democracy

            European countries with parliaments that normally have multiple parties working together rather than a duopoly are the obvious counterpoint.

        • ErmingtonPlumbingMEMBER

          I dont hate you Totes,…Actually I think Id enjoy having a Beer with you.
          I just think your Eliminate the ALP for a Better country campaign is misguided and unhelpful.
          I agree with ALL of what you say about the leadership of the party I am a member of.
          But as a true believer in Real Democracy and advocate for the lower classes I believe that a Rank and File, democraticly controlled ALP is more likely to be able to deliver the will of the people than a Diffuse Parliament full of independents, all with their own just as corruptible agendas.

          50 to 100 thousand new members could completely take over the ALP, there are many democratic structures and processes within the Party that could be taken advantage of by a motivated Rank and File/Movement.
          This is why you NEVER see ALP recruitment drives coming out of Sussex St,…they actually dont want people like you to Join Toates,…That should be enough of a reason by itself for you to to do so Brother!
          Your actually EXACTLY the kind of person I Would LOVE to see joining the Party in large Numbers.
          Much fun and Rabble rousing could be had.
          But only if we have the Numbers.

          How many millions of votes would be needed to bring about an “Independent candidate dominated Parliament” and the destruction the Labor Party”?
          It’d be Millions! compared to only a Hundred thousand!

          Of course i’m just a dumb shyte Plumber and I could be wrong,…but I dont think I am

          Solidarity Brother.

          • What happens when the current crop of labor move onto labor2.0 taking their donors and known politicians with them?
            You end up in exactly the same position as if you just went and started the workers first party instead.
            If the current party supports the status quo why wouldn’t they leave if you tried to take over. And if it doesn’t then adding 10 times as many people won’t change anything.

          • Totes BeWokeMEMBER

            Thanks Ermo. I agree with much of what you’ve said, I do however think any numbers of people like me would be countered by elites.

            The elites have the country wrapped up into a “game of mates that includes LNP, Labor and MSM. I guess the problem is in itself the candidates are a slave to the party.

            I really don’t think it, or anything in Australia can be fixed, but I’m going down fighting.

            Might catch you for that beer some day.

    • My workmate told me MAFS was interrupted by the PM giving an update. She was annoyed.

      That’s what we are dealing with.

      • Totes BeWokeMEMBER

        Let’s face it. Morrison is the most smug prk we’ve ever encountered. I’d prefer MAFs too I think.

        • lololol. Why would you be annoyed? The fact she preferred to watch MAFS most likely means she knows that Fucmo has nothing of value to say, so why would she interrupt her tv viewing.

  3. What’s the left media saying here? I don’t read the Guardian, but the Smage yes, but where’s the prosecution of Scrotumo’s performance.

    What about Probyn, Grattan, et al.

    Especially with the shut down of parliament for FIVE months. WTAF.

    The Monthly appears to be the only one disturbed by this.

      • Well, quite.

        So you could maintain your key staff who need to maintain reasonably ok relations (e.g ask one or two hard qs then let Scrotum off the hook) but go hard with others?

        It’s just maddening. Sigh.

        I am fairly sure there’ll be no accountability at the top for all this.

        And, #whatbushfires?

        • Accountability. LOL. They let them stream off the Ruby Princess in their COVID-fuelled masses. Nobody in the health department is accountable for that.
          Make a mistake at the front line and it is a different story of accountability.

          • Have you seen the chaos at Sydney International Airport. People crushed into waiting halls …sharing it around, and then released into the community. Yay Team Australia … we have got this covered!

      • absolutely. wait for the ramp in fatalities. watch the army roll in to a city near you. the next election (if we have one) will be fun. I have thought democracy a failed experiment, didnt think it would fail in my lifetime. what we will be left with is a very hollow form of it if lucky. put your gold under your bed in a deep secret safe (no good holding cash) 😉

        Since they been filling swimming pools with the stuff in the ME …

    • Totes BeWokeMEMBER

      The left are anti Australia, anti Australian, anti worker, pro globalisation, pro immigration.

      The left have to fry to save our country.

    • The media are kind of hostage to all the nice lollies that Gubmint doles out to the compliant among them.

      That’s how you buy a certain loyalty — even if that loyalty is simply articulated by silence on a given matter.

      And that’s also why dissent is almost exclusively found on the fringe these days.

      Chillingly, the powers that be are ‘concerned’ at the amount of ‘misinformation’ outside the MSM and are actively exploring censorship possibilities.

    • happy valleyMEMBER

      Probyn asked Scotty a question in the Monday night presser about inconsistent policy (schools open v. now no gatherings for the rest of us of more than 10) and Scotty didn’t like it, shut him down and answered effectively that education must go on whatever the cost.

      Katharine Murphy is writing good critical stuff in The Guardian – most recently putting the boot in to Stuart Robert, that happy clappy minister mate of Scotty, describing him as incompetent and hypocritical.

  4. “We need complete shutdown of infected areas to contain the virus then you test, test, test your way through the reopening. It is north Asia’s proven method and the only way to ensure lowest deaths and minimal economic damage.”
    I thought people here didn’t believe that China had succeeded in beating the virus and were currently lying about their figures.

    • Totes BeWokeMEMBER

      Turns out, they’re hyper intelligent, hard working, practical, driven, coordinated, and determined.

      Only a country full of idiots, like us, would invite them to compete with our kids.

      This is like a rerun of the Neanderthal extinction.

    • The South Korean method of hunting people who are infected and those who were in contact with them is another avenue of attack.

      • For what it’s worth I don’t think China is lying about their current virus figures. Not to any meaningful degree.

        Not because they’re usually honest and credible in their reporting — clearly they’re anything but this. In terms of economic figures, their early virus figures, many other things, are anything but honest.

        They’re telling the truth about current virus figures because the truth is ‘good’ (figures are low) and so there is no need to make stuff up.

        None of which is to deny that as they let their guard down things might get bad again (possibility, not certainty).

  5. Everyone should watch Jacinda Adern’s recent speech. No spin, no ‘we are the best in the world’ – just solid gold national leadership.

    • ApproachingZero

      She’s all spin no substance. She simply knows what to say at the right time, signals all the right virtues, which ultimately just makes her a better marketer than ScoMo.

    • Skelton MallardMEMBER

      Whether you agree with her policies or not decisions have been made that put the health of New Zealanders first. I am glad that I live in New Zealand at the moment. The opposition has supported the decision and not tried to score political points – neither has the Lab party over their decisions. Have not seen this happening in Aust, US, UK. We will see where we are in 4 weeks time and whether this strategy works. But I am thankful that it is being tried and I am where I am.

  6. Last week I called it that no one listens to the Fed Gov any more and people started takng matter in their hands. Many stopped taking their kids to school, panic buying is another sign of loss of confidence that this Gov can manage this crisis and Centrelink fiasco is evidence that people are right to panic.
    Next stage will be riots and widespread looting of shops as lot of people run out of money and decide to loot food stores. Who can blame them when our Gov left them on their own.
    Few days ago when I mentioned that we will probably see looting someone reported seeing people eating inside Coles and throwing packaging on the floor.
    Only mass Gov resignation will restore confidence. Instead they shut parliament thinking problems will just go away in few months. First he tried to run away to Hawaii now he just decides not to show up at work. What a fckn leader.

    I never thought I will support military coup ever.

    • Adopting the medical advice that I personally disagree with that I consider has been wrong from the beginning is one thing. Disregarding it is another. It is plain that the countries that shut down and closed borders early have done well. Lots of other countries are shutting schools and universities, some only recently. In my view we have procrastinated here. They have been acting in accordance with their advice. I don’t think that having a joint state and federal cabinet is a bad idea, and the recent directives have been made presumably with the agreement of the state medical officers as well. Either the medical opinions rule or they do not. They appear to me to be the ruling consideration now, with irrelevancies that were taken into account by our Chief Medical Officer no longer (xenophobia ffs!). It’s a difficult job folks mistakes will be made but it’s not a job for a soldier or an economist, let alone a former President of the Property Council. It’s good that they act on advice.

      • Thr problem is that the advice comes from yes men assigned to give the desired answers.
        See: Chief Medical officer and schools.

          • NSW + VIC state CMO clearly recommended closing schools. Vic did, NSW all but did with gladys strongly advising people to keep their kids home.
            How does this compare with, scomo’s schools must stay open?
            Given Feds have very little to do with health, while states run the hospital systems, which would you trust more?

          • There are other states, a lot of students are working from home. I saw the answer of Prof Murphy on Q & A who described a lack of evidence for school closures.
            “The government is holding up Singapore as a leading example and they have taken these proactive steps, such as daily temperature checks for all staff and students,” Mr Malinauskas said.

            That said I know what I would do but there appears to be different approaches. Singapore is doing very well atm.

  7. ApproachingZero

    When all this is over there must be an investigation into the decisions that were made, with ramifications if people have died for those decisions. A few points that spring to mind:

    * The timing of the social gathering limits around Hillsong.
    * The refusal to close schools by Scott “My kids are enrolled” Morrison and the timing around university census dates.
    * Why border closures were delayed to protect the education sector, when it was clearly going to be at the cost of every sector.
    * Why Brendan Murphy used lack of community spread as an excuse to not close borders when the point of border closures is to prevent community spread.
    * Where did Brendan Murphy get his dubious information when we was quoting low mortality rates that were demonstrably calculated incorrectly.
    * Why can’t MyGov support an influx of users when it’s the primary communication service, why are ministers lying about DDOS attacks, and how did it cost so much to develop?

      • ApproachingZero

        If they’ve been influenced by commercial interests at the expense of human lives then you won’t hear any argument from me.

    • Totes BeWokeMEMBER

      Keep a running list.

      Add VC’s sending students from Wuhan to 3rd world countries to “isolate”

      Add, why are weddings limited to 5 while funerals are 10?

      Add, Why weren’t we sourcing medical supplies 2 months ago?

      Add, Why weren’t we securing the medical supplies we had?

      Add, Why weren’t media criticising LNP decisions 2 months ago?

      Add, Why weren’t Labor criticising LNP decisions 2 months ago?

      Might ask about Gladys lack of fashion sense too. Unbelievable.

      The media, LNP and Labor are all the same thing. Without most of the nation on board, nothing will come of any of it.

    • The90kwbeastMEMBER

      I completely agree. The thing that seems to make little sense to me is that Brendan is waiting for the evidence to emerge first before making decisions – a reasonable position most of the time. The problem is with this pandemic if you wait for the evidence to act, it’s already too late. Better to ask for forgiveness than permission to me, but we haven’t done that e.g. closing the border, closing businesses etc.

  8. THe SmoCorona sh!tshow continues:

    This morning the federal government announced the time restrictions would be lifted.

    Last night the hairdresser lobby was begging for the industry to be part of the lockdown.

    Approximately 40,000 hairdressers and barbers continue to be at risk following the federal government’s announcement last night to leave hairdressing off its latest COVID-19 shut down list.

    In addition, salons are forced to only conduct 30 minute appointments, which is not a viable time frame to conduct most hairdressing services and offer a professional experience for clients.

    “This decision is outrageous,” says Australian Hairdressing Council CEO Sandy Chong. “Around 40,000 hairdressers and barbers continue to be at risk of as they are directly exposed to large members of the public. Why beauty was shut down but hairdressing wasn’t, I don’t understand.

    “The Fair Work Act, as it stands, makes it costly for businesses if they choose to stand down without the Government’s directive.”

  9. Looks like they spent the whole night agonising over whether we can get hair cuts…..WASS. This new deputy chief health officer was obviously picked for docility. Not doing maths at school is going to have devastating effects.

    Anna in Qld is woeful……no way I am going within 400 metres of a polling booth and they still don’t get that the kids spread it from school. This isn’t rocket science.

    They are going to lose the most valuable tool we have against this….informed consent of the public.

    • “… no way I am going within 400 metres of a polling booth ..”

      They may be tempted to fine you – esp. now that stamp duty receipts are going to crater. 😉

      I just did postal ballot — best way.

      • I’m not voting, I want the fine, I want something to file away and pull out when I need to prove a point to young people in the future (not sure of the point yet, but there’ll be something)

        • drsmithyMEMBER

          If the world keeps on its current trajectory, the point might be “voting used to be a responsibility, not a privilege”.

  10. ScoVid’s PR team at News Corp has been rolled out. Morrison’s capitulated, relinquishing his leadership and handing it over to the states not that there was much to start with.

    Coronavirus: NSW and Victoria set to tighten lockdowns as PM says all states can pursue own plans

    Roll out the cheers squads to muzzle the sound of a government capitulating.

  11. What’s happening now is a perfect example of why we need decentralized government. Why we need the states. The people who argue for cost savings by creating one all-powerful monolithic central government just don’t understand human behaviour.

  12. Sign of an irresponible and incompetent leader, blaming others, especially subordinates.


  13. Jumping jack flash

    “These are the dregs of a politcal party that took power in a coup after successive leadership putsch’s drained what was already a thin gene pool. Its performance since the election has been terrible, guiding the economy into recession and cheerleading private debt higher into an end of cycle shock”

    When times are good, it doesn’t matter who is in charge. You can have the most ideological greenie in charge and the economy will more or less run itself and everyone will be happy.

    When times are bad, that’s when we need the actual leaders who know what they’re doing.

    The problem is that since times have been so good for so long, NONE of the bunch of selfish, self-serving, postulating clowns we have in the house on the hill are capable of leading us in these dark times. They’re not good at doing ANYTHING except maybe talking and looking after themselves and their mates. That’s precisely why they are politicians – because they have NO useful skills. If they had useful skills, they’d be using them, usefully and skillfully.

    • Partly.
      It is also true that anyone with enough intelligence to dela with the current situation could see the economic problems coming as it’s been obvious for a long time. No one enters poilitics to be remembered as the guy who caused/ruled over the greatest depression in a hundred years.
      All the smart people decided to bide their time somewhere else until a more appropriate time to enter politics and we are left with the people too stupid to realise now is a really bad time to be in charge, with the obvious result they really have no idea what to do now we are here.

      • Jumping jack flash

        I see your point and mostly agree

        “No one enters poilitics to be remembered as the guy who caused/ruled over the greatest depression in a hundred years.”
        No, they enter politics to get a leg up unto a cushy private sector consultancy job after a few years of courtship, and a property portfolio.

        I would wonder if anyone who is intelligent would go anywhere near the current mess though.
        Perhaps we eventually find someone who is both intelligent and patriotic enough?

        A lot of the problem is that the government sold off most of its ability to control anything of any consequence to the common people, to the private sector. In that political landscape not a lot of our leaders can actually effect any change, even if they could be bothered to.

        • “No, they enter politics to get a leg up unto a cushy private sector consultancy job after a few years of courtship”
          Pretty sure Turdbull was rich enough already, and most of the people you are talking about would be as well, ie Dick smith.

  14. The Fair Work Act, as it stands, makes it costly for businesses if they choose to stand down without the Government’s directive. If they decide to close, they need to keep paying staff wages, or make staff volunteer to use their annual and long service leave entitlements.

    If your industry hasn’t been officially closed, and your employer decides to close – and tells you that you “need to use your annual leave and long service leave” in order to keep getting paid – then they are ripping you off!

    Is the Australian Government purposely not closing businesses and industries because they are hoping the natural slow down will result in people using up all their annual leave and long service leave entitlements?

    Is it a way for Australian businesses to write-off all these leave liabilities by making their employees use them up during a time of global pandemic – so when they decide to make them redundant down the track they have to pay them out less?

    Is it the Government deciding that they want to “unlock” peoples leave and long service leave entitlements to help the economy before seeing these people on the dole queue because they have been officially “stood down” under the Fair Work Act?

    It’s becoming clear that there are economic motives (and not health motives) for leaving industries open – with those people most desperate for pay the ones willing to risk their health in order to survive on the front line.

    • ErmingtonPlumbingMEMBER

      If the Priority is to Save lives AND the economy Its just such a no-brainer to deposit KRudd style cheques straight into all citizen bank accounts, every week, until this crisis is over.
      A simple to organise electronic transfer for all without all this myriad of confusing bureaucratic hoops to jump and boxes to tick through an overloaded Centrelink/My Gove/ATO infrastructure that is clearly not resourced to cope with the current stiuation.

      • The priority is to look like he is doing something.
        Unfortunately scotty hasn’t worked out it’s going to be very obvious very quickly if he is actually doing something or not.

  15. David WilsonMEMBER

    Typical anti government stuff from David, the fires are a state responsibility but the feds did give enormous financial assistance along with the army etc, as for climate change its time for you to get off the pot David… this year along with , 2019, 2018, and 2017 were all cooler than 2016 and yep the drought was caused by natural climate seasonal variations as has been the case for thousands of years ( that is if you are interested in facts and not climate scare bs)
    The government is making changes to policy almost daily to deal with the virus, something no other government has EVER done, they are learning on the job just like all of us.
    We are now facing massive job losses, failure of many businesses, a health system overload crisis,, a massive hit to our economy and all you do is wine … time to get over it and no I don’t think the government is perfect and know it is difficult to get anything done with our f,ing Senate being obstructionist on a regular basis.
    Yep Morrison is learning on the job and don’t forget he has to depend on a massive overpaid lazy bunch of government employees ( I have difficulty referring to them as worker’s)
    I can’t wait for the flack that will come back from the usual suspects resulting from my comments.!!

  16. Steven Roberts

    There are a health issues and economic issues here. Both are important. But the error the Government has made is to assume there is a trade off between the two. There isn’t. One problem is growing exponentially, the other problem is inevitable.
    – Had we shut down the borders in February instead of trying to allow the tourism industry to kick along for a few more weeks, then the country would have had far fewer cases and the tourism industry would have a chance to bounce back (albeit domestic tourists).
    – Had we shut down cities 2 weeks ago then everybody would have suffered all at once, but the shut down may be brief (China is already relaxing restrictions). Businesses could have gotten back to work.
    – Had we even performed basic health tests on cruise ship occupants (NSW Govt, hide your shame) it may have helped fractionally.

    This Government has chosen at every step to avoid shutting down businesses, and the consequence of their choices is that businesses will close for FAR longer periods. The economic devastation of the next 6 months is the result of the choice not to impose economic devastation a few weeks earlier.

    The refusal by the PM to lockdown cities last weekend, on economic grounds, will have devastating economic costs. And kill thousands of Australians in the process.

    What would Malcolm have done? Indeed, perhaps the relevant question is, what would Anthony have done?

  17. Simple solution get rid of states and then we would really know where to lay the blame.